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I encourage students to explore areas of math and science they enjoy and strive to make each lesson entertaining. Specialisations included University Tutor Logo. Let's begin. Why are you seeking tutoring? School Work Standardized testing Other. Roberts, J. A History of China. Palgrave Macmillan, Schoenhals, Michael, ed. M E Sharpe Inc, August Short, Philip. Mao: A Life. Metropolitan Books, January Tanner, M.
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Hackett, 1. Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N. Twentieth-Century China: New Approaches. New York, Page P age Page 9. Plan of Investigation words. This investigation assesses the role of the Chinese Communist Party in the massacre and cannibalism of Guangxi Province in , during the peak of the Cultural Revolution: was the central government responsible for the death of , people?
Claiming as many lives as the Nanking Massacre, the mass killing and cannibalism which took place in the rural areas of Guangxi autonomous region remains one of the biggest taboos in China. Understanding the context to decipher the root cause is the aim of this paper. I will employ the Scarlet Memorial,by Mr. Other sources include interviews with witnesses, doctors, government consultants, as well as literature by Chinese and Western historians, and organizational behaviourists. Summary of Evidence Mass gatherings were held where these people were openly humiliated.
Meanwhile, because local governments were disbanded and upper party members were in dispute , the number of factions grew exponentially in the country. All individuals suspected of membership, their associates and their families were not spared. The most extreme method of killing was cannibalism; named individuals fell victim to it in four counties alone.
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Then, the mass would gather around the subject, physically assault him or her, cut two diagonals across the abdomen and push out the organs. Official records claim that near the close of December, news regarding the intensity of the activities in Guangxi finally reached Beijing in the form of a letter from a local cadet in Wuxuan and Premier Zhou Enlai, outraged, immediately sent commander in chief of the Guangxi Military Region to dispatch militia into the counties, putting down the unrest.
The extreme violence ended at the beginning of Evaluation of Sources The book is a primary source published in by Westview Press, a company renowned for democracy promotion. Written by Chinese journalist, writer, and exile about his investigation on the cannibalism and mass killings of the Guangxi Massacre in , the book was one of the only two documents on the subject and was the only reason the event is known overseas, making it invaluable.
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Sym, another democracy advocate. Authenticating his data is near impossible at this point and his possible political vendetta cannot be ignored. Published in by his university press as a thesis paper, Su personally researched scores of officially published county annals in Chinese and uses geography, demography, even statistics, to examine every aspect of the mass killings in Guangxi, including the question of government responsibility. This paper is crucial, as it arises from unbiased research , a writer who is not a political dissident.
This scholarly perspective aids historians to use his data trustingly and to consider his neutral understanding of the event: blame cannot be fully allotted to the central government, just as the mass murders cannot be completely dismissed. Thus, the limitations to this document are in proportion to the limitations on the contentious topic itself: even when governmental archives are opened, the rural disposition of the counties with will have eroded the objective truth to the event.
Analysis Mass Killing. This first fact establishes governmental responsibility, be it on a provincial level. The question then is whether the central party members were directly behind the instigation, and moreover, whether they were even aware of the situation.
This psychological approach to the issue is valid and does place guilt upon the government in general.
Yet, tangible evidence suggests the opposite. This builds into the prior ideas of indirect causation, providing evidence that the establishment of government instigated revolutionary committees occurred immediately before or after the height of mass killing in many provinces. The factions that formed to support these ideals eventually became uncontrollable; from an organisational behaviour perspective, mass aggression only escalates.
The most popular question is why a government so indignant over tragedies like the Nanking massacre , would turn and ignore another genocide which claimed just as many lives, and in such an animalistic manner?
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Judging from how militia was sent in to Guangxi as soon as the top officials discovered the extent of the crises, there was no direct government responsibility to the cannibalism itself. The central members of the Communist Party are not directly responsible for the massacre in Guangxi during the Cultural Revolution.
The time and rural location of the cases prove that not only did the higher authorities clearly not foresee the consequences, therefore, did not premeditate them. This conclusion is perhaps more decisive than it should be, considering the Communist archives are still unopened and only forty years have passed, not allowing enough objectivity to make a certain historical judgement. Yet, at this point, the evidence shows no correlation. The bulletin provokes vicious battles in the region among various factions that result in the incidents of cannibalism.
Plan of Investigation. Chief among them was the support the USSR was willing to provide. To investigate this, the main Chinese source used will be interviews conducted by a Chinese author of the military officers during the war as well as later historians. With the different interpretations of the historians as well as the personal witnesses of these officials, their explanations will then be compared to the ones of the British as well as the Chinese that have suffered from the persecutions of the Cultural Revolution.
Summary of Evidence. During the initial beginning of the war, China had not intervened, but four months later on October 16, after sending an ultimatum on October 3, , Chinese soldiers entered the war. But in it, there was absolutely no mentioning of Stalin. By October 8th, Mao announced the creation of a group of volunteer soldiers for the war and at the same time he sent Zhou to Moscow to discuss the aid Stalin would provide. Zhou stated that as long as the Soviet army agrees to cover with air force, the Chinese will send in their army.
Stalin replied that they would provide the air force, but since the Soviet army is not ready, he would need around two months time to prepare. Firstly, Mao needed to protect the Northeast section of China because during the time the area was crucial in industrial development. Mao had feared that if the Americans cross the Yalu River, the industrial development section of China will be at risk. Secondly, if China did not enter the war, then the Soviet influence will increase, which will put China at a disadvantage.
Thirdly, Mao believed that if they did not support North Korea, many refugees will escape to China, which will result in chaos. Lastly, Mao believed that as a Communist leader, they had the responsibility of supporting the other nations that wished to pursue Communism and in this case especially North Korea. At the same time they would be gaining Soviet technology and military equipment services, which Mao believed was essential in helping China in becoming stronger in the future.
Evaluation of sources. The main author, Chang, is not a trained historian, but rather a linguist. She uses personal experiences and witnesses during the Cultural Revolution as a basis for her criticisms of Mao. It is valuable in that it provides alternative perspectives on the issue of the reasons for why Mao entered the war. The perspective and provided opinion clearly differs from the one provided through the war veterans in Crossing over the Yalu River, which is comprised of opinions from the Chinese.
But despite the different view which Chang presents, her entire focus in on the aspects of Mao in all of his decisions and not only the Korean War. With this breadth of knowledge she is presenting, it is difficult for her to pin down the specifics of this war. In Crossing Over the Yalu River, the author Cheng Hong provided interviews with all the military officials and historians to explain the reasons.
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